slideshare ppt on research

Tuesday, 31 July 2012


1.  1570s, "act of searching closely," from M.Fr. recerche (1530s), from O.Fr. recercher "seek out, search closely," from re-, intensive prefix, + cercher "to seek for". Meaning "scientific inquiry" is first attested 1630s.
2.  Related: Researched; researching. Phrase research and development is recorded from 1923.

Great description about research by "SCRIBD"

Qualities of good quality researcher ........

Monday, 30 July 2012

nobel prize winners of chemistry

1901Jacobus H. van't HoffNetherlands
1902Hermann Emil FischerGermany
1903Svante A. ArrheniusSweden
1904Sir William RamsayGreat Britain
1905Adolf von BaeyerGermany
1906Henri MoissanFrance
1907Eduard BuchnerGermany
1908Ernest RutherfordGreat Britain
1909Wilhelm OstwaldGermany
1910Otto WallachGermany
1911Marie CuriePoland - France
1912Victor Grignard
Paul Sabatier
1913Alfred WernerSwitzerland
1914Theodore W. RichardsUnited States
1915Richard M. WillstätterGermany
1918Fritz HaberGermany
1920Walther H. NernstGermany
1921Frederick SoddyGreat Britain
1922Francis W. AstonGreat Britain
1923Fritz PreglAustria
1925Richard A. ZsigmondyGermany
1926Theodor SvedbergSweden
1927Heinrich O. WielandGermany
1928Adolf O. R. WindausGermany
1929Sir Arthur Harden
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Great Britain
1930Hans FischerGermany
1931Friedrich Bergius
Karl Bosch
1932Irving LangmuirUnited States
1934Harold C. UreyUnited States
1935Jean Frédéric Joliot
Iréne Joliot-Curie
1936Peter J. W. DebyeNetherlands
1937Walter N. Haworth
Paul Karrer
Great Britain
1938Richard KuhnGermany
1939Adolf F. J. Butenandt
Leopold Ruzicka
1943Georg de HevesyHungary
1944Otto HahnGermany
1945Artturi I. VirtanenFinland
1946James B. Sumner
John H. Northrop
Wendell M. Stanley
United States
United States
United States
1947Sir Robert RobinsonGreat Britain
1948Arne W. K. TiseliusSweden
1949William F. GiauqueUnited States
1950Kurt Alder
Otto P. H. Diels
1951Edwin M. McMillan
Glenn T. Seaborg
United States
United States
1952Archer J. P. Martin
Richard L. M. Synge
Great Britain
Great Britain
1953Hermann StaudingerGermany
1954Linus C. PaulingUnited States
1955Vincent du VigneaudUnited States
1956Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood
Nikolai N. Semenov
Great Britain
Soviet Union
1957Sir Alexander R. ToddGreat Britain
1958Frederick SangerGreat Britain
1959Jaroslav HeyrovskyCzech Republic
1960Willard F. LibbyUnited States
1961Melvin CalvinUnited States
1962John C. Kendrew
Max F. Perutz
Great Britain
Great Britain
1963Giulio Natta
Karl Ziegler
1964Dorothy C. HodgkinGreat Britain
1965Robert B. WoodwardUnited States
1966Robert S. MullikenUnited States
1967Manfred Eigen
Ronald G. W. Norrish
George Porter
Great Britain
Great Britain
1968Lars OnsagerUnited States
1969Derek H. R. Barton
Odd Hassel
Great Britain
1970Luis F. LeloirArgentina
1971Gerhard HerzbergCanada
1972Christian B. Anfinsen
Stanford Moore
William H. Stein
United States
United States
United States
1973Ernst Otto Fischer
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Great Britain
1974Paul J. FloryUnited States
1975Sir John Cornforth
Vladimir Prelog
Australia - Great Britain
Yugoslavia - Switzerland
1976William N. LipscombUnited States
1977Ilya PrigogineBelgium
1978Peter MitchellGreat Britain
1979Herbert C. Brown
George Wittig
United States
1980Paul Berg
Walter Gilbert
Frederick Sanger
United States
United States
Great Britain
1981Kenichi Fukui
Roald Hoffmann
United States
1982Aaron KlugSouth Africa
1983Henry TaubeCanada
1984Bruce MerrifieldUnited States
1985Herbert A. Hauptman
Jerome Karle
United States
United States
1986Dudley Herschbach
Yuan T. Lee
John C. Polanyi
United States
United States
1987Donald J. Cram
Charles J. Pedersen
Jean-Marie Lehn
United States
United States
1988Johann Deisenhofer
Robert Huber
Hartmut Michel
1989Thomas R. Cech
Sidney Altman
United States
United States
1990Elias James CoreyUnited States
1991Richard R. ErnstSwitzerland
1992Rudolph A. MarcusCanada - United States
1993Kary B. Mullis
Michael Smith
United States
Great Britain - Canada
1994George A. OlahUnited States
1995Paul Crutzen
Mario Molina
F. Sherwood Rowland
Mexico - United States
United States
1996Harold W. Kroto
Robert F. Curl, Jr.
Richard E. Smalley
Great Britain
United States
United States
1997Paul D. Boyer
John E. Walker
Jens C. Skou
United States
Great Britain
1998Walter Kohn
John A. Pople
United States
Great Britain
1999Ahmed H. ZewailEgypt-United States
2000Alan J. Heeger
Alan G. MacDiarmid
Hideki Shirakawa
United States
United States - New Zealand
2001William S. Knowles
Ryoji Noyori
K. Barry Sharpless
United States
United States
2002John B. Fenn
Koichi Tanaka
Kurt Wüthrich
United States
2003Peter Agre
Roderick MacKinnon
United States
United States
2004Aaron Ciechanover
Avram Hershko
Irwin Rose
United States
2005Yves Chauvin
Robert H. Grubbs
Richard R. Schrock
United States
United States
2006Roger D. KornbergUnited States
2007Gerhard ErtlGermany
2008Gerhard Ertl
Martin Chalfie
Roger Y. Tsien
United States
United States
United States
2009Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Thomas A. Steitz
Ada E. Yonath
United Kingdom
United States
2010Richard F. Heck
Ei-ichi Negishi
Akira Suzuki
United States
2011Dan Shechtman Israel

Sunday, 29 July 2012

Saturday, 28 July 2012

Article by Richard F. Taflinger, PhD

Article by  

Richard F. Taflinger, PhD


Research is finding out what you don't already know. No one knows everything, but everybody knows something. However, to complicate matters, often what you know, or think you know, is incorrect.
There are two basic purposes for research: to learn something, or to gather evidence. The first, to learn something, is for your own benefit. It is almost impossible for a human to stop learning. It may be the theory of relativity or the RBIs of your favorite ball player, but you continue to learn. Research is organized learning, looking for specific things to add to your store of knowledge. You may read SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN for the latest research in quantum mechanics, or the sports section for last night's game results. Either is research.
What you've learned is the source of the background information you use to communicate with others. In any conversation you talk about the things you know, the things you've learned. If you know nothing about the subject under discussion, you can neither contribute nor understand it. (This fact does not, however, stop many people from joining in on conversations, anyway.) When you write or speak formally, you share what you've learned with others, backed with evidence to show that what you've learned is correct. If, however, you haven't learned more than your audience already knows, there is nothing for you to share. Thus you do research.


There are three types of research, pure, original, and secondary. Each type has the goal of finding information and/or understanding something. The difference comes in the strategy employed in achieving the objective.
Pure Research
Pure research is research done simply to find out something by examining anything. For instance, in some pure scientific research scientists discover what properties various materials possess. It is not for the sake of applying those properties to anything in particular, but simply to find out what properties there are. Pure mathematics is for the sake of seeing what happens, not to solve a problem.
The fun of pure research is that you are not looking for anything in particular. Instead, anything and everything you find may be joined with anything else just to see where that combination would lead, if anywhere.
Let's take an example. I was reading a variety of books and magazines once. There were a some science fiction novels, Jean Auel's THE CLAN OF THE CAVE BEAR, Carl Sagan's BROCA'S BRAIN, several Isaac Asimov collections of science essays and two of his history books, ADVERTISING AGE and AD WEEK magazines, some programs on PBS, a couple of advertising textbooks I was examining for adoption in my class, and several other things I can't even remember now. This was pure research; I was reading and watching television for the sake of reading and watching about things I didn't know.
Relating all of the disparate facts and opinions in all of these sources led me to my opinions on stereotyping and pigeonholing as vital components of human thought, now a major element in my media criticism and advertising psychology classes. When I started I had no idea this pure research would lead where it did. I was just having fun.
Original Research
Original, or primary research is looking for information that nobody else has found. Observing people's response to advertising, how prison sentences influence crime rates, doing tests, observations, experiments, etc., are to discover something new.
Orginal research requires two things: 1) knowing what has already been discovered, having a background on the subject; and 2) formulating a method to find out what you want to know. To accomplish the first you indulge in secondary research (see below).
For the second, you decide how best to find the information you need to arrive at a conclusion. This method may be using focus groups, interviews, observations, expeditions, experiments, surveys, etc.
For example, you can decide to find out what the governmental system of the Hittite Empire was like on the basis of their communication system to determine how closely the empire could be governed by a central bureaucracy. The method to do this original research would probably require that you travel to the Middle East and examine such things as roads, systems of writing, courier systems without horses, archeological evidence, actual extent of Hittite influence (commercial, military, laws, language, religion, etc.) and anything else you can think of and find any evidence for.
Secondary Research
Secondary research is finding out what others have discovered through original research and trying to reconcile conflicting viewpoints or conclusions, find new relationships between normally non-related research, and arrive at your own conclusion bas ed on others' work. This is, of course, the usual course for college students.
An example from recent years was the relating of tectonic, geologic, biologic, paleontologic, and astronomic research to each other. Relating facts from these researches led to the conclusion that the mass extinctions of 65 million years ago, including the dinosaurs, was the result of an asteroid or comet striking the earth in the North Atlantic at the site of Iceland. (For a full explanation see THE GREAT EXTINCTION by Michael Allaby and James Lovelock.) Later research based on the above has found a potential crater for the impact on the Yucatan Peninsula.
Secondary research should not be belittled simply because it is not original research. Fresh insights and viewpoints, based on a wide variety of facts gleaned from original research in many areas, has often been a source of new ideas. Even more, it has provided a clearer understanding of what the evidence means without the influence of the original researcher's prejudices and preconceptions.

Friday, 27 July 2012

Quantitative and qualitative research..........

In terms of research methodology, probably the most important
distinction is that of quantitative and qualitative methods.
Quantitative methods have a much longer history in research into
aspects of healthcare and the use of medicines. Nevertheless, qualitative methods are now well established as well as being seen as 
essential for many research questions.

Researchers who come from health professions, including pharmacists, are generally more familiar with quantitative approaches to 
inquiry than qualitative approaches.Quantitative studies are those 
in which the researcher aims to quantify phenomena. They may be 
small or large, or local, national or international. In terms of design,

studies may be descriptive or experimental. Examples of quantitative
studies may be:
assessments of the frequencies of events

establishing the proportion of people in a population/sample who

hold particular views or attitudes
audits of professional practice and use of medicines, requiring

assessment against set criteria
assessment of rates of adherence among particular populations

the timing, duration and resources associated with activities

a comparison of prescribing patterns and rates between hospitals

examination of associations between variables in a data set, e.g. number of medicines prescribed and reports of medication-related problems, or attitudes and population characteristics or experiences

 randomized controlled trials in which differences in outcomes

between groups are measured and compared
studies that involve the application of statistical procedures


HOW TO RESEARCH  A PAPER  ......................

Tuesday, 24 July 2012

Einstein thought on "research"

Einstein thought on "research"

"If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?"

chemistry noble prize winner thoughts on "research"

Monday, 23 July 2012



* A careful critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts for principles, careful  investigation  in order to ascertain something.

* Systematized effort to gain new knowledge is known as research.

* Research always start with question or problem. Its purpose is to find answer to question through application of scientific methods and knowledge.

* it is a systematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studied.