slideshare ppt on research

Friday, 30 August 2013

Database Research

In a digital world most students want to find short cuts to search for
articles.That is why databases were developed. A database is simply a collection of articles from different journals that are indexed into an electronic database that can then be searched electronically using keywords, author or title names, Library of Congress subject headings, etc.Companies called database aggregators enter into agreements with a number of publishers to assemble indexes using many different journals. This saves the user time and allows one simultaneous search of any number of journals. 
Databases are typically arranged broadly according to subject areas.    Academic Search Elite is a database aggregation containing articles of journals dealing with general academic, inter-disciplinary subjects. JSTOR ideals with social science and education databases. Science Direct deals with science and technology databases.. AB In form deals with business databases.The Academy library offers several databases selected for their relevance to the courses taught here. 
These databases can be accessed on course pages by clicking on the “Academy Online Library” link. Using these databases is an art, not a science. The library page also contains links to PDF documents that discuss how to search EBSCO host and ProQuest. Most databases use the same search techniques.There is also a link on the library page to an article discussing a special type of search technique called Boolean searching. All students should read this article before beginning to conduct database searches. These databases will produce results that are not from scholarly journals. A user can, however, click on a setting that will produce only results from scholarly journals and thus let the program itself do the selection work.

Elements influencing beiievabiiity of the research....

Writing style
Research reports should be well written, grammatically correct, concise and well organized.The use of jargon should be avoided where possible. The style should be such that it attracts the reader to read on

The author(s') qualifications and job title can be a useful indicator into the researcher(s') knowledge of the area under investigation and ability to ask the appropriate questions. Conversely a research study should be evaluated on its own merits and not assumed to be valid and reliable simply based on the author(s') qualifications.

Report title
The title should be between 10 and 15 words long and should clearly identify for the reader the purpose of the study .Titles that are too long or too short can be confusing or misleading.

The abstract should provide a succinct overview of the research and should include information regarding the purpose of the study, method, sample size and selection.The main findings and conclusions and recommendation.From the abstract the reader should
be able to determine if the study is of interest and whether or not to continue reading.

Logical consistency
A research study needs to follow the steps in the process in a logical manner.There should also be a clear link between the steps beginning with the purpose of the study and following through the literature review, the theoretical framework, the research question, the methodology section, the data analysis, and the findings.

Wednesday, 28 August 2013

Artistic inclinations a healthy expression of imagination

I consider artistic inclinations a healthy expression of imagination. I give here a few 
quotes so that everyone may judge the reasons upon which I have based my conclusion that this aptitude was present. The quotes are taken from the biographies in question:


 “Itwas towards the end of his stay atGranthamthat, besides a marked success in painting, he developed a remarkable poetic talent. Several productions from that time are carefully preserved by connoisseurs.”

“He was essentially a poet, and his great delight was to wander in the Jardin du Roi, observing nature, not as a physical philosopher,but as a poet. Though his understanding was strong, his imagination was stronger.”

“I found, among his papers, two stanzas of an epic poem entitled The Creation of France or la Thémelie and two completed tragedies, one concerns the capture ofUtica and the death of CATON, the other,which is entitled, ‘Elektra’,recounts the horrible vicissitudes of the house of Atreus. Beautiful verse and interesting
situations, etc.”

4. LALANDE (YOUNG. Works): “His earliest taste seems to have been for romantic
tales, and he was fond ofmaking little stories with the materials that he possessed, but their subjects were chiefly religious. Having been sent to Lyon, to continue his studies under the Jesuits there, he acquired a taste for poetry and eloquence, and was then inclined to devote himself to literature and to the bar; but an eclipse of the sun recalled his attention to astronomy.

Monday, 26 August 2013


Why, you might ask, is having more than a passing familiarity with research so important in medical education and in the practice of today’s medicine? And why do we feel so strongly about this issue that we have woven a scholarly project into our curriculum and made it an integral component of every medical student’s experience here ? The simple answer is tied to the never-ending quest for excellence in the education of would-be physicians. However, simple answers don’t tell the full story, which, in this case, is perhaps best approached from the bottom line: What kind of doctor do you want? Our thinking is that physicians schooled in the analytic process are better prepared than those without such a background to retrieve and critically evaluate the information in this week’s JAMA and New England Journal of Medicine — information that can help them determine patient treatments, for instance, or separate advertising hype from established facts in the process of evaluating new drugs.
We believe that physicians schooled in the analytic process will listen to a patient’s medical history and complaints differently. Rather than starting with a set of memorized characteristics and trying to fit the patient into one pathogenic category or another, they listen to all the facts the patient provides and put them together a new. Even if the outcome turns out to be familiar, the realm of diagnostic possibilities is much broader and the practice of medicine much richer than when it is based simply on rote recognition of symptom patterns. We also contend that physicians schooled in the analytic process are more likely than others to get to the bottom of a case and to yield creative clinical decisions based on solid evidence when symptoms don’t fall into common patterns and that they’ll be better equipped to deal with the rapidly changing developments that have become a hallmark of contemporary medicine. So, once again, what kind of doctor do you want?

Saturday, 24 August 2013

Active Learning Work ! A Review of the Research

Department of Chemical Engineering
Bucknell University

Active learning has received considerable attention over the past several years. Often presented or perceived as a radical change from traditional instruction, the topic frequently polarizes faculty.Active learning has attracted strong advocates among faculty looking for alternatives to traditional teaching methods, while skeptical faculty regard active learning as another in a long line of educational fads. For many faculty there remain questions about what active learning is and how it differs from traditional engineering education, since this is already “active” through homework assignments and laboratories. Adding to the confusion, engineering faculty do not always understand how the common forms of active learning differ from each other and most engineering faculty are not inclined to comb the educational literature for answers. This study addresses each of these issues. First, it defines active learning and distinguishes the different types of active learning most frequently discussed in the engineering literature. A core element is identified for each of these separate methods in order to differentiate between them, as well as to aid in the subsequent analysis of their effectiveness. Second, the study provides an overview of relevant cautions for the reader trying to draw quick conclusions on the effectiveness of active learning from the educational literature.

Active learning is generally defined as any instructional method that engages students in the learning process. In short, active learning requires students to do meaningful learning activities and think about what they are doing. 

While this definition could include traditional activities such as homework, in practice active learning refers to activities that are introduced into the classroom. The core elements of active learning are student activity and engagement in the learning process. Active learning is often contrasted to the traditional lecture where students passively receive information from the instructor. 

Friday, 23 August 2013


Becoming more aware of how the scientific process manifests itself every day in both
research and teaching can enhance a teacher’s effectiveness, depth of expertise, and
ability to justify the choice of instructional methods to parents, peers, and administrators.
As in  evaluations of educational programs, the tenets and themes of scientific
research have relevance and application in the classroom. But because there are different
stages of scientific investigation, teachers should take care to use data generated at
each stage in appropriate ways.
For example, some teachers rely on their own observations to make judgments about
the success of educational strategies. A collection of observations leads to some
understanding of the world, but observations have limited value. Scientific observations
must be structured in order to support or reject theories about the causes that underlie
events. Scientists—and teachers—make predictions about causes based on their
structured observations and then use other techniques to test specific outcomes.
In the early stages of investigation, case studies—highly detailed descriptions of
individuals or small groups and the context surrounding them—can be useful. Case studies provide descriptive information about how an educational program operates in a
classroom, for example, descriptions of instructional strategies, amount of time, and
types of materials used in a new vocabulary program. This qualitative design uses a
variety of data collection methods from multiple sources to study a single entity in depth,
over a period of time, and in its context. Case studies lack the comparative information
needed to determine cause-effect relationships, but they can point researchers to
variables that deserve further study and help generate hypotheses. They can be helpful in
developing theories about what is or is not working instructionally.

Tuesday, 20 August 2013

let's see research "reliability and validity"

Sociologist James A. Quinn states that the tasks of scientific method are related directly or indirectly to the study of similarities of various kinds of objects or events.One of the tasks of scientific method is that of classifying objects or events into categories and of describing the similar characteristics of members of each type. A second task is that of comparing variations in two or more characteristics of the members of a category.Indeed, it is the discovery, formulation, and testing of generalizations about the relations among selected variables that constitute the central task of scientific method.
Fundamental to the performance of these tasks is a system of measurement. S.S. Stevens defines measurement as "the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules." This definition incorporates a number of important distinctions. It implies that if rules can be set up, it is theoretically possible to measure anything.
Further, measurement is only as good as the rules that direct its application. The "goodness" of the rules reflects on the reliability and validity of the measurement two concepts which we will discuss further later in this lab. Another aspect of definition given by Stevens is the use of the term numeral rather than number. A numeral is a symbol and has no quantitative meaning unless the researcher supplies it through the use of rules.The researcher sets up the criteria by which objects or events are distinguished from one another and also the weights, if any, which are to be assigned to these distinctions. This results in a scale. We will save the discussion of the various scales and levels of measurement till next week. In this lab, our discussion will be focusing on the two fundamental criteria of measurement, i.e., reliability and validity.
The basic difference between these two criteria is that they deal with different aspects of measurement. This difference can be summarized by two different sets of questions asked when applying the two criteria:
a.Will the measure employed repeatedly on the same individuals yield
similar results? (stability)
b.Will the measure employed by different investigators yield similar results?
c.Will a set of different operati
onal definitions of the same concept
employed on the same individuals, using the same data collecting technique, yield a highly correlated result? Or, will all items of the measure be internally consistent? (homogeneity)
a.Does the measure employed really measure the theoretical concept?(variable)
1.Concept : "Exposure to Televised News"
2.Definition: the amount of time spent watching televised news programs
a. frequency of watching morning news
b. frequency of watching national news at 5:30 p.m.
c. frequency of watching local news
d. frequency of watching television news magazine & interview programs
Design an eleven-point scale, where zero means "never watch at all," one means"rarelywatch" and ten "watch all the time." Apply the eleven-
point scale to each of the four indicators by asking people to indicate how often they watch each ofthe above TV news programs.Combining responses to the four indicators/or survey questions according to certain rules, we obtain an index of "exposure to televised news program," because we think it measures TV news exposure as we defined it above. A sum score of the index orscale is calculated for each subject, which ranges from 0 (never watch any TV news programs) to 40 (watch all types of TV news program all the time). Now, based on the empirical data, we can assess the reliability and validity of our scale.

Sunday, 18 August 2013

Combined efforts of imagination with the power of critical judgment.

1. Of even greater significance than the choice of the object or of the moment of observation is the discretionary alteration of the observed, for here the possibility of the acuteness of judgement is revealed. Tyndall wanted to find out during his studies on fermentation what happens if the air, which comes in contact with the fermenting substance, is altered by freeing it from those floating small dust particles which can be shown in it by means of a light beam.. He removed the dust particles very simply by covering the inside surface of the box, in which he carried out the experiment, with glycerol. After some time even the smallest dust particles stuck to the wall, like flies on a tar-covered fence.Again imagination was responsible that this thought occurred to his mind.
2. The expedients which facilitate the observation and frequently are the only means to make it feasible. There is a difficulty which makes it impossible to observe the retina through the pupil although the latter is completely translucent. The difficulty is that precisely during observation, as the idiom states, one stands in one’s own light. Aflame put between the observed and the observing eye would illuminate the former but make its observation impossible. The thought occurred to HELMHOLTZ’S mind to place between both eyes a small mirror with a small aperture in such a way that a lateral light beam would fall in the subject’s eye which now can be observed through the aperture. This synergism of imagination and critical judgment resulted in the invention of the ophthalmoscope. So much for the first part of the mechanism. The result of its application is accurate knowledge of our environment; but this knowledge relates to a cornplexwhole, to conglomerations of causes and effects.

3.Several musicians,A,B,C, etc., simultaneously play different instruments behind a curtain.We think of these musicians as a coherent whole of causes; the concert generated by them is the (harmonious) conglomerate of effects. The question as to the connection between each given cause and its effect then concerns knowledge of the instrument played by each musician. The simplest expedient would certainly be to ask all musicians to stop playing for a moment except one, for example,A. But this is not always possible and the musicians can only all together play a bit more softly or somewhat louder. Suppose, also, in another instance at which one must confine himself to have A stop or to let him change his manner of playing.This example refers only to the simplest case, in which one can regulate the participation of the musicians as desired for the experiment. Yet, even in the most complicated cases, all depends upon the observation of agreement or difference in the playing of the individual instruments.

Friday, 16 August 2013

vital role of imagination in research....

Science is practical in the highest sense of the word.
If the assignment consists of reaching a given aim, then it is sometimes easier to circumvent prevailing difficulties rather than to attack them; since the former is frequently possible when the latter exceeds our energy. Yet, we would be compelled to confine ourselves to direct confrontation if there were no connection between that which is occurring and that which will take place.This connection is real; in its over-all effect it is termed the relation between cause and effect. It is the task of Science to elucidate this connection in all its details.

This is the reason why I called Science practical in the highest sense of the word;
Science is the great expedient by which the environment is subjugated to our will.
With this we have more closely circumscribed the scope of our topic as: The role of the
imagination in investigating the connection between cause and effect. We will define imagination as the ability to visualize any objectwith all its properties so that one recognizes itwith the same great certainty as by simple observation. There now remains
only to describe theme chanismwith which the connection between cause and effect can be investigated and to ascertain where the ability just mentioned plays a role. This mechanism is extraordinarily simple. It is composed of two parts:

1. By means of the first, observation, one tries to obtain accurate knowledge of our
environment forthwith.
2. By means of the second, the causal connection in it is investigated.

While observation as such, the giving of an account to oneself of the impressions on our
sensory tools, requires nothing but skill in their use and the ability to focus their attention,
there are higher demands to bemade of those qualitieswhich alone give observation its high value, namely:
a) the choice of the moment or the object of observation,
b) the discretionary change of the observed,
c) the finding of those expedients which facilitate the observation and even frequently are the only means which make it possible.These are just as many prerequisites in which completely different faculties play a role rather than skilled sense organs and attention. 

Choice of the moment or the object of observation: Shortly before his death the 
French astronomer LEVERRIER predicted the existence of a new planet in proximity to the sun.Several observatories at his urging searched for this planet at the instant when it was located between earth and sun and should be seen as a dark disk on the latter. These observations were not crowned by the results hoped for.

Structure and delivery

Master's degrees may be delivered via a full or part-time mode of study. They may include greater or lesser amounts of distance learning or may combine methods. In terms of duration, many are offered on the basis of one year of full-time study or the equivalent for part-time. However, program mes may be shorter or longer, with the M Phil usually taking up to two years full-time.Master's degrees may be modular, and may incorporate progression through postgraduate certificate and diploma. In such cases providers will wish to ensure that integration and synthesis across the program me lead to intended learning outcomes beyond those of its constituent parts. Some may also be delivered partly, and sometimes fully, through an employment setting. The mode of delivery will, in all cases, be clear for applicants and agreed by providers. It will be offered in the context of an integrated strategy of teaching, learning and assessment that enables the student to demonstrate the intended learning outcomes appropriate to the programme's overall aims.
Integrated master's awards - which are common in science, mathematics and engineering - are delivered through a programme that combines study at the level of a bachelor's degree with honours with study at master's level. As such, a student graduates with a master's degree after a single four-year, or five-year in Scotland, programme of study. If a work placement is included, the time taken to complete the programme may be extended.
There are also examples of master's degrees that are delivered through an integrated
programme of study that includes a three-year doctoral degree. In such cases, a student
graduates with a doctoral degree such as a PhD or DPhil after a single, four-year
(minimum)programme of study.

Wednesday, 14 August 2013

Teaching and learning from master's

Master's degrees may be delivered through a variety of methods of learning and most will combine different methods. Traditionally, providers have distinguished between master's degrees that are awarded on the basis of an independent, though supervised, research project undertaken by the student and those for which structured learning contributes the majority of the material to be assessed. However, any master's degree may draw upon a combination of methods of delivery as appropriate to the programme's overall aims. 

Some such programmes may be designed and delivered through a partnership arrangement between a higher education provider and an employer.All master's programmes will normally be supported by an integrated teaching, learning and assessment strategy that demonstrates the appropriateness of the learning, teaching and assessment methods used in relation to the intended learning outcomes being developed.
The particular teaching and learning methods to be used will be identified in individual
programme documentation, such as a programme specification (see footnote 1 in the
Preface). The most appropriate method or combination of methods will be a matter
for individual providers to decide. Methods might include all or any of the following,
selected as appropriate to the discipline or field of study and the programme's aims,
mode of delivery and typical entrants:

4.practical work, for example in a laboratory, in the field, workshop or studio the use of 5.textbooks, journal papers, electronic databases and other self-study and
6.e-learning materials

7.project work
8.practice sessions and learning through case studies learning.

Bachelor's degrees with honours, the guidance on teaching and learning may also be
helpful to those dealing with master's degrees, although master's degree programmes

will typically feature a greater emphasis on methods involving independent study
towards a dissertation or other project-based work.

Tuesday, 13 August 2013

Role of master's degree in research work .....

Master's degrees may be designed to fulfill a range of purposes. The purpose for
which the degree is intended will reflect both the desires and ambitions of students
and the traditions and needs of particular disciplines and professions. That master's
degrees may be designed with more than one purpose in mind will be reflected in the
destinations of graduates. As articulated in the national qualification descriptor, graduates of all master's degrees should be capable of demonstrating a systematic understanding of knowledge, much of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of the discipline, field of study or area of professional practice. They should be capable of demonstrating originality in their application of that knowledge and in addressing problems. They will have demonstrated a comprehensive understanding of the techniques applicable to their own research or advanced scholarship. In relation to future employment, master's graduates will be expected to possess the skills needed to exercise independent learning and to develop new skills to a high level. Higher education providers may offer a master's degree with the specific intention of:
1.enabling students to focus on a particular aspect of a broader subject area in
which they have prior knowledge or experience through previous study or
employment and/or
2.enabling students to focus on a particular subject area or field of study in greater
depth than they encountered during the course of previous study or experience.
This may include enabling students to develop knowledge of a new discipline or
field of study in combination with a relevant subject area in which they have prior
knowledge or experience and/or
3.enabling students to learn how to conduct research, often linked to a particular
discipline or field of study. Programmes will often include a greater emphasis
on the delivery of structured learning as opposed to independent study than
those which are dedicated to the actual undertaking of research and/or
4.enabling students to undertake a research project on a topic within the area
of interest that makes up the majority of the overall assessment and/or
5.enabling students to specialize or to become more highly specialized in an area
of employment or practice related to a particular profession.

Monday, 12 August 2013

Early as well as late .....

Interventions can be described as ‘early’ or ‘late’ both in relation to the timing of the intervention relative to a child’s age and in relation to the stage in development of the problem to be addressed. In relation to children’s age, there is a need for intervention across childhood, as neglect can occur at any time from infancy to teenage years.There is also a need for intervention in infancy and before three years of age, given what is know about brain development and quality of care-giving. Whatever the chronological age of the child involved, the child’s developmental age needs to be taken into account when designing interventions, as indeed does the parents’ (Howe, 2005).

In relation to the stage in development of the problem, ‘early’ and ‘late’ interventions may also be required. In this context, ‘early’ refers to primary initiatives aimed at prevention of difficulties, and can involve universal service provision such as prenatal care and health visiting. ‘Early’ may also involve secondary interventions that tackle difficulties in their early stages, such as services aimed at isolated families or withdrawn children. Although we have relatively little robust research evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventative interventions in relation to neglect, the principle that risk is cumulative and that multiple risk factors most place a child at risk (Rutter, 1987) implies that early intervention is essential. It is also known that non-uptake of routine universal services, such as missing children’s developmental health checks and poor attendance at nursery or
school, is typical of neglectful parents for a number of reasons, including a mistrust of services. Early intervention is therefore significant for improving outcomes for this group. ‘Late’ interventions also play a role, and involve tertiary levels of provision that target difficulties at severe, entrenched or crisis levels. These services can involve provision from specialist agencies such as child and adolescent health teams and statutory social services involvement.

Research about various neglect towards childern

1. Medical neglect – this involves carers minimizing or denying children’s illness or health needs, and failing to seek appropriate medical attention or administer medication and treatments.

2. Nutritional neglect – this typically involves a child being provided with inadequate calories for normal growth. This form of neglect is sometimes associated with ‘failure to thrive’, in which a child fails to develop physically as well as psychologically. However, failure to thrive can occur for other reasons, independent of neglect. More recently, childhood obesity resulting from an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise has been considered as a form of neglect, given itsserious long-term consequences.

3. Emotional neglect – this involves a carer being unresponsive to a child’s basic emotional needs, including failing to interact or provide affection, and failing to develop a child’s self-esteem and sense of identity. Some authors distinguish it from emotional abuse by the
intention of the parent.

4. Educational neglect – this involves a carer failing to provide a
stimulating environment, show an interest in the child’s education at
school, support their learning, or respond to any special needs, as
well as failing to complying with state requirements regarding school

5. Physical neglect – this involves not providing appropriate clothing,
food, cleanliness and living conditions. It can be difficult to assess
due to the need to distinguish neglect from deprivation, and because
of individual judgements about what constitutes standards of
appropriate physical care.

6. Lack of supervision and guidance – this involves a failure to provide
an adequate level of guidance and supervision to ensure a child is
physically safe and protected from harm. It may involve leaving a
child to cope alone, abandoning them or leaving them with
inappropriate carers, or failing to provide appropriate boundaries
about behaviors such as under-age sex or alcohol use. It can affect
children of all ages.

neglect as problem for childerns .....

Dr Patricia Moran, Action for Children Consultancy Services 

Neglect has been called the ‘Cinderella’ of child welfare topics due to the
relative lack of attention the subject has attracted (Tanner and Turney,
2006). It is often subsumed with physical or sexual abuse into a generalised
category of child maltreatment and is rarely the focus of research in its own
right. And yet recent UK social care statistics indicate that cases of neglect
are on the increase (NSPCC, 2007). Whether this increase represents a
genuine rise in numbers, a shift in definition or another change in practice is
unclear. Child Protection Register (CPR) statistics also indicate that neglect
is the leading category for registration across the UK. The latest statistics for
England, for example, show that in the year up to 31 March 2007, neglect
was given as a reason for registration in 44 percent of cases, representing
14,800 children (DCSF, 2007). These figures give some indication of the
scale of the problem, but are likely to be an underestimate given the role
that neglect may play in cases of children in need, or among cases that go
undetected by services.
1.2 Other sources of statistics also indicate that neglect has a higher prevalence
rate than other forms of childhood maltreatment such as physical or sexual
abuse. Cawson et al (2000) found that 18 percent of a random sample of 18
to 24 year olds reported some absence of care in childhood, and 20 percent
had experienced inadequate supervision. In a retrospective study of
childhood experience among working-class women, Bifulco and Moran
(1998) reported a rate for moderate to severe neglect of 17 percent. The
evidence from these various sources clearly indicate that neglect of children
and young people is a significant problem.

Thursday, 8 August 2013

Neglect: research evidence to inform practice

 Definition of neglect
 Difficulty in gathering evidence about neglect in order to inform practice lies
in the complexity surrounding its definition. Neglect has been described as a
mulch-faceted concept (Stone, 1998), and its non-unitary nature has given
rise to differences in the way that it is defined within research and practice.
The lack of consensus regarding its definition has impacted on
understanding of not only the scale of the problem, but also its causes, its
assessment, and approaches to intervening to prevent or reduce its adverse
 Although there are many different definitions of neglect, one common
aspect of definitions is their emphasis on neglect as an act of omission.
Unlike physical or sexual abuse, in which specific abusive acts are directed
towards a child, neglect is typically defined by the absence of provision for a
child’s basic needs (Gough, 2005). However, beyond the consensus that
neglect involves acts of omission, definitions of neglect vary in significant
ways, including differences in the breadth and scope of what is considered
to constitute a ‘basic need’ and differences in what are considered to be
adequate standards of provision to meet them. 
to be continue .......