slideshare ppt on research

Sunday, 29 June 2014

Hypothesis Criteria and Guidelines

 Hypothesis Criteria
-Is written in a declarative sentences.
-Is written in the present tense. There is a positive relationship between the number of times children have been hospitalized and their fear of hospitalization.
-Contains the population.
-Contains the variables.
-Is empirically testable

Guidelines for critiquing hypothesis and research Questions

-Does the study contain a hypothesis or hypotheses?
-Is each hypothesis clearly worded and concise?
-Is the hypothesis written in a declarative sentences?
-Is each hypothesis directly tied to the study problem?
-Does each hypothesis contain the population and at least two variables?
-Is it apparent that each hypothesis contain only one prediction?
-if the study contains research questions, are the questions precise and specific?
-Do the research questions further delineate the problem area of the study?

Thursday, 26 June 2014

Classifications of hypothesis

Simple or complex:

A Simple hypothesis: concerns the relationship between one independent and one dependent variable (bivariate study). In experimental studies the independent variable may be considered the cause, and the dependent variable may be considered as the effect.

Example: there is a negative relationship between denial and reports of anxiety among post myocardial infarction patients

A complex hypothesis:

Concerns a relationship where two or more independent variables, two or more dependent variables, or both, are examined in the same study (multivariate).

Example: there is a positive relationship between patient perception of pain control and (a) complaints of pain and (b) requests for pain medication

Note : remember that hypothesis are not required if only one variable is being examined.

Hypothesis and research question

A hypothesis is a statement of the predicted relationship between two or more variables


Allow theoretical propositions to be tested in the real world.
Guide the research design.
Dictate the type of statistical analysis for the data
Provide the reader with an understanding of the researchers expectations about the study before data collecting begins.

Source of Hypothesis-
From the researchers own experiences.
From previous research studies.
From theoretical propositions. This is the most important source of a hypothesis. This process of a hypothesis derivation involves deductive reasoning. A propositional statement is isolated from the study frame work and empirically tested.

Note(1) : 
Nursing research involves both inductive and deductive means of formulating hypothesis.

Hypothesis should always be written before the study and should not be changed after the study results are examined