slideshare ppt on research

Monday, 12 August 2013

Early as well as late .....

Interventions can be described as ‘early’ or ‘late’ both in relation to the timing of the intervention relative to a child’s age and in relation to the stage in development of the problem to be addressed. In relation to children’s age, there is a need for intervention across childhood, as neglect can occur at any time from infancy to teenage years.There is also a need for intervention in infancy and before three years of age, given what is know about brain development and quality of care-giving. Whatever the chronological age of the child involved, the child’s developmental age needs to be taken into account when designing interventions, as indeed does the parents’ (Howe, 2005).

In relation to the stage in development of the problem, ‘early’ and ‘late’ interventions may also be required. In this context, ‘early’ refers to primary initiatives aimed at prevention of difficulties, and can involve universal service provision such as prenatal care and health visiting. ‘Early’ may also involve secondary interventions that tackle difficulties in their early stages, such as services aimed at isolated families or withdrawn children. Although we have relatively little robust research evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventative interventions in relation to neglect, the principle that risk is cumulative and that multiple risk factors most place a child at risk (Rutter, 1987) implies that early intervention is essential. It is also known that non-uptake of routine universal services, such as missing children’s developmental health checks and poor attendance at nursery or
school, is typical of neglectful parents for a number of reasons, including a mistrust of services. Early intervention is therefore significant for improving outcomes for this group. ‘Late’ interventions also play a role, and involve tertiary levels of provision that target difficulties at severe, entrenched or crisis levels. These services can involve provision from specialist agencies such as child and adolescent health teams and statutory social services involvement.