Research is a scientific investigation aimed at discovering and applying new facts, techniques
and natural laws. At its heart is inquiry into the unknown, addressing questions not previously
asked. Research is done by a wide range of organisations: universities and colleges;
government agencies; industry and contract organisations. Research projects vary widely in
content and also in style, from open ended exploration of concepts to working towards specific
Development in an industrial context is the work done to finalise the specification of a new
project or new manufacturing process. It uses many of the methods of scientific inquiry, and
may generate much new knowledge, but its aim is to create practicable economic solutions.
The combined term Research and Development can be seen as the work in an industrial or
government context concentrating on finding new or improved processes, products etc., and
also on ways of introducing such innovations.
The use of the term R&D may not wholly encompass the activities intended to be covered by
the Guidelines, but has been adopted by the authors as the most appropriate and convenient